Amid the Industrial Revolution, steam-driven trains and ships put an end to the era when travels relied on carriages and sailing ships. On September 27, 1825, Darlington-Stockton Railway, the world’s first railway, was born in the UK with a speed (48km/h) much higher than that of a carriage (approx. 8km/h); in 1840, the cruise ship Britannia set out from Liverpool and carried its first-batch passengers to Boston, marking that cruise tours appeared on the scene. Enabled by much shorter traveling time and much lower traveling expenses, tours became increasingly popular worldwide, and reached out to the masses. By revolutionizing ways of travel, modern means of transportation bring tourists to each and every part of the world, and make intra-continental and around-the-world tours options for the masses. As wheels roll amid historical development, the profile of the world has become clear over time.
The earliest philosophers in the East and West disseminated knowledge in journeys teeming with hardship and danger. By walking unknown roads, generations of successors recorded what they saw and heard amid pilgrimages, trading, explorations or novelty hunting. Their diaries, manuscripts, letters, memoirs and real objects enabled insights into what the world was like, how travels silently affected the production and life of all human beings, and changed ordinary people’s mentality. Through synthesis, these remains shaped later generations’ knowledge about the world.
直到 19 世纪，热门的旅游目的地都几乎完全是富人们的游乐场。库克想要改变这个局面。于是，他组织团体折扣价格的旅行团吸引大众，提供前往热门目的地的经济实惠的短途旅行，例如英国乡村庄、莱茵河谷、法国里维埃拉、埃及金字塔和瑞士阿尔卑斯山等，使许多工薪阶层和中产阶级有更多的机会旅行。当富有的旅行者刚开始面对“旅行是专享”的局面被打破时，曾向库克旅行社投诉：一群粗野、未受过教育的普通人入侵他们的专属旅行天堂。但库克和他的团队们依然践行着“服务好所有旅客”的旅游企业精神。
In the Victorian era, the UK led the world’s first real upsurge of tours. At that time, tour trends were set by British nobles. These trend-setters who had high requirements for catering, accommodation, scenic spots and means of travel developed travel etiquettes that reflected their behavioral habits. As pioneers, they traveled different parts of the world, from the continent of Europe to the UK’s colonies like Egypt, Australia and North America. By defining routes to follow, such pioneering practices had a far-reaching influence on the middle class and ordinary people.
Today, while we have access to lighter, faster and easier means of travel, we miss the special tour styles prevailing among Victorian travellers - they might enjoy time on Orient Express, have fun on the luxurious White Star Line, or go deep into Egypt to visit pyramids…
From “the Rich First” to “Travellers First”
While the travel featured a hierarchy at the very beginning, “travellers’ freedom and rights” became the focus of tourist service as the tourist industry took shape. Since 1841, hotels, scenic spots, restaurants, train compartments, ship compartments and other tourism-related public spaces have witnessed the nearly 200 years of tourism’s fight against social unfairness. The long-lasting fight involves pushing the boundaries of race, class and gender and addressing other social or human rights-related issues. Tourist service providers, travellers and all sectors of society have all made major contributions to the effort. This is what has shaped the world of tourism where “members of all classes travel to bring together all wealth, statuses, characters, habits, social customs and dressing styles available in different countries”. Learn more:
As stipulated in the UK’s Gladstone Act (1844), third- and fourth-class train compartments must also be capped; every business day must see at least one train specially driven for third-class passengers; third-class train compartments must also be provided with lights; a train should not miss any stop, and; every week, there must be at least one train offering ticket prices acceptable to ordinary people. These provisions provide ordinary people with access to one-day seaside tours and low-priced tours.
Civil Rights Act
As stipulated in the Civil Rights Act (1866) of the US, to the extent permitted by law, everyone within the jurisdiction of the US, irrespective of his race, skin color and previous status of being enslaved or not, is entitled to sufficient, fair access to the accommodations, preferences, facilities and privileges a hotel provides, public means of transportation onshore and offshore, theatres and other public spaces of entertainment. The subsequent amendment to the Civil Rights Act ensures African Americans have equal access to hotels and public means of transportation.
Thomas Cook: A Pioneer
Popular tourist destinations remained a preserve of the rich in the 19th century. Aspiring to change that, Thomas Cook organized discount-featured tour groups to attract the masses. The affordable excursions Cook organized pointed to hot tourist destinations, such as British rural areas, Rhine Valley, French Riviera, Egyptian pyramids and the Swiss part of the Alps. This was how he provided more opportunities of going sightseeing for numerous salaried persons and middle-class members. At the beginning when the “monopoly” was broken, rich tourists complained the innovator’s travel agency, arguing that their proprietary “paradise” was invaded by uncivilized, uneducated people. Yet, at the travel agency, Cook and his team still followed the philosophy of “delivering high-quality service to all tourists”.
会展的风靡 : 世界博览会
穷游的兴起 : 背包客旅行
当时，马可·波罗和陆上丝绸之路的旅行故事点燃了年轻人心中对神秘东方的探险兴趣，再加上嬉皮士艺术先锋——披头士乐队 1968 年的印度之行激发了他们的旅行欲望。于是，成千上万的长发年轻人从欧洲穿越到印度，即从伦敦或阿姆斯特丹开始他们的旅程，向东走，搭便车或乘火车前往土耳其，然后乘坐公共汽车和拼车穿越伊朗、阿富汗和巴基斯坦。这样逐渐形成的旅行路线被称为“嬉皮小径”（也被戏称为东南亚香蕉煎饼小径）。而后由于黎巴嫩和阿富汗的战争以及 1979 年的伊斯兰革命，大多数嬉皮士小道变得太危险而无法穿越，旅行者逐渐减少，直至大多数人都遗忘。了解更多：旅行圣经《Lonely Planet》的诞生
9 世纪左右，埃及就出现了指南手册。著名小说《八十天环游》最常见的是旅行者携带着乔治·布莱德肖(George Bradshaw)编写的《铁路指南》。1921年，南美自助游指导丛书《南美徒步游手册》问世。真正世界范围的旅游指南热是从上世纪六七十年代兴起的，一个标志性事件就是《孤独星球》的问世。1973 年，Lonely Planet 出版了第一本迎合年轻背包客的指南之一：《横穿亚洲》。后来政府、旅游组织、旅游服务商等纷纷效仿指南的形式，向民众进行宣传。了解更多：步行小径的建造
早期的步行者只是简单地通过陆路旅行或沿着传统路线行走。欧美城市化进程刺激了户外休闲的热潮，城市居民们试图逃离城市在树林中度过一段时间，这种旅行方式的兴起激发了全球范围内专门建造的小径。 Vermont's Long Trail 于 1930 年竣工，是美国第一条长距离步行道；1938 年位于匈牙利的 National Blue Trail 是欧洲的第一条长途步道。
From the early 17th century to the late 18th century, a multitude of tourists, the majority of whom were British noblemen, flocked into the continent of Europe to learn the classic culture of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. In the special upsurge of tours, “In the UK, instead of going to college, young men were sent abroad immediately when they graduated from middle schools. Amid the increasingly strong tendency, it is believed that traveling abroad enables significant improvements in young men’s knowledge and ability”, according to a book written by Adam Smith. This revealed that such tours in pursuit of classic culture went popular.
At the beginning of this upsurge, the tourists headed for well-known, time-honored cities like Paris, Rome and Venice. As a result, multiple study tour routes took shape later. Of them, the most popular one was from France to Italy, to Germany and Low Countries. The tourists spent about 2-4 years traveling around by carriage. In such expensive, long-time tours aiming to learn architectural, linguistic and cultural knowledge, they might stay in places of their interests for a few months or even several years.
For example, Russian emperor Peter the Great spent much time in the Netherlands during his tour in Western Europe. In the course of that, he witnessed architecture in Dutch cities like Armstrong. It is those architectures that inspired how he guided the building of St. Petersburg.
Popularity of the MICE Tourism: The World Expo
The World Expo is the oldest one of the global top 3 international events: the World Expo, the World Cup, and the Olympic Games. As a step to stimulate economic development and production, Napoleon held the earliest global expo, Craft Fair, in 1789. Following the well-recognized event, many countries often held large-scale expos to celebrate commemorative events, in ways that helped attract visitors worldwide. In this context, the MICE (meetings, incentives, conferences, exhibitions) tourism took the lead to spread tourist activities worldwide.
With the MICE tourism sweeping the world, MICE brands represented by “expo” have made significant contributions to global tourism. Since its first session taking place in 1851, the World Expo has welcomed over 1 billion visitors totally. For example, the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, held in London in 1851, attracted about 6.04 million people; the World Expo Osaka (1970) gave a cordial reception to 65 million visitors, and; the World Expo Shanghai (2010) was attended by more than 73 million participants.
Rise of Budget Travel: Backpacking
From nomadic tribes and ancient explorers, to backpackers and hippies, freewheeling tours have a long, long history.
Hiking and camping have been increasingly popular after the World War II. To facilitate long trips, some travellers improved the backpacks often used in marches of troops, and put bed sheets, sleeping bags, lighting tools and cooking utensils into improved backpacks. This could explain why these travellers are called “backpackers”. The nature of budget travel, coupled with the interestingness of exploration, makes backpacking much-admired among youths.
Contrary to large-scale commercialization of tours, backpacking has opened a new door for hippies, enabled tourist guidebooks to go global, and made outdoor recreational tours a fashion. Its popularity mirrors individuals’ varied tourist demands in post-modern society. Learn more: Vogue of Hippie Trails
Hippie travellers emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. These special travellers wore long hair and beard, and walked deserted trails without caring what they ate or where they lived. In fact, they established many tour routes.
At that time, the story that Marco Polo travelled the Silk Road aroused young people’s motivation to explore the mysterious Orient. The motivation was furthered by The Beatles’ travel to India in 1968. Following the example of the Hippie pioneer, hundreds of thousands of long-haired youths hiked from Europe to India. They set out in London or Amsterdam, went eastwards to Turkey by getting a lift or by train, and then passed through Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan by bus or through car sharing. The routes shaped on that basis were called “hippie trails”, or jokingly dubbed “Southeast Asia’s Banana Pancake Trails”. However, the wars in Lebanon and Afghanistan and the 1979 Iranian Revolution made most hippie trails too dangerous to pass through. As such, hippie trails saw decreasing travellers, and finally fell into oblivion.
Tourist guidebooks came out in Egypt early in the 9th century. George Bradshaw’s Continental Railway Guide was often carried by travellers, according to the famous fiction Around the World in 80 Days. As a follow-up on that, South America Trekking Manual, a series of books on DIY tours in South America, appeared in 1921. In its true sense, the wave of tourist guidebooks emerged in 1960s and 1970s, marked by the birth of the journal Lonely Planet. In 1973, Lonely Planet published the first guide designed for young backpackers, Across Asia on the Cheap. Later, governments, tourist organizations and tourist service providers reached out to people about tourism also in the form of guides.Learn more: Building of Hiking Trails
In early years, hikers simply walked on land or along traditional routes. As urbanization aroused a wave of outdoor recreation, urban residents in the West attempted to escape into forests. Driven by this tour mode, hiking trails were specially built worldwide. For example, Vermont's Long Trail, the US’ first long-distance trail, was completed in 1930; National Blue Trail, Europe’s first long-distance trail, was completed in Hungary in 1938.
真正的旅行社业务依托于英国旅行服务商的兴起。它们所提供的旅游服务不断完善，为旅行社的诞生提供了一定的群众基础。始于1758年的英国公司 Cox & Kings为富人提供客户规划和准备旅行服务；1822年，英国人罗伯特·斯马特（Robert Smart）首创了蒸汽轮船的船票代售业务；1841年英国人Thomas Cook首创了火车旅游业务；1850年，前英国驻挪威领馆秘书托马斯·贝纳特（Thomas Bennett）创办了“trip organizer”，为旅客提供定制化行程设计，提供马车及酒店预订服务，并给旅客提供所需的旅行用品。了解更多：第一家旅行社——Thomas Cook
1841年7月5日，英国人托马斯·库克（Thomas Cook）安排500多名禁酒运动支持者提供了一次从莱斯特到拉夫堡往返总计22英里的包车服务，含往返火车旅行、乐队娱乐、下午茶和美食。得到肯定后，他创立了一家以自己姓名为名的公司，托马斯库克旅行社（Thomas Cook），即为世界上第一家旅行社。这是现代旅游业具有划时代意义的历史事件。
托马斯·库克旅行社最初专注于一日铁路游览，后来将旅行更广泛地面向工人阶级，推出大众都能接受的主要目的地。1851 年，托马斯有机会组织铁路旅行和旅行住宿，让各省的人们前往伦敦参加由阿尔伯特亲王精心策划的万国博览会。在为期 6 个月的展览期间，托马斯将运送超过15万人前往伦敦。这是英格兰最大的事件之一，也是英国境内最大的人口运动之一。他提供的苏格兰之旅、利物浦之旅都获得了很大成功。1872年，托马斯库克旅行社（此时公司名改为Thomas Cook & Son）策略并安排了第一个233天环游地球的行程，包含美国，日本，中国和印度的行程。这是从英国走向世界舞台的标志性事件。我们在随后100多年的历史中，看到“Thomas Cook & Son”的牌子树立在欧美大都市的繁华街巷中，在行业中占据着重要地位。直至2019年，托马斯库克旅行社宣布破产。
The early years of tourism saw the integration of travel agencies, as important media, with hotels, cruise ships and airplanes, which helped with the leapfrog development of global tourism. On top of that, the wide use of telephone and fax has added to the capability of booking and information transfer in tourism; the popularization of cars and airplanes has made travel much easier. Meanwhile, travel agencies have kept renewing and transforming themselves, in an effort to keep up with the times. Learn more: Rise of Tourist Service Providers
Travel agency business was backed by the rise of tourist service providers in the UK. Their increasingly improved services fostered a customer base for travel agencies. Founded in 1758, the British company Cox & Kings was committed to delivering tourist planning and preparation services to the rich. Robert Smart, a British man, invented the commission sale of steam ship tickets in 1822. Thomas Cook, also a British man, invented the train tour, in 1841. In 1850, Thomas Bennett, former secretary of the UK’s embassy to Norway, founded Trip Organizer, which worked to make available to tourists the services of custom journey design, carriage and hotel booking, and required tourism products as well.Learn more: The First-Ever Travel Agency - Thomas Cook
Thomas Cook arranged a chartered bus service, which spanned 22 miles from Leicester to Loughborough, for over 500 supporters of the opium suppression movement, on July 5, 1841. The service covered a train for the round trip, orchards, afternoon tea and food. As the service was well recognized, Cook founded the world’s first travel agency, Thomas Cook, which used his own name. The action represented a milestone in the history of modern tourism.
The travel agency focused on one-day train tours in its early years. Later, to extend its business to the working class, the pioneering organization offered options of major tourist destinations acceptable to the masses. In 1851, by organizing train tours and accommodations, Thomas led people from different provinces to the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations in London, which was meticulously designed by Prince Albert. The 6-month exhibition saw the travel agency take 150,000 persons to London. This was one of the most important events in the history of England, and represented one of the biggest population migrations within the UK. In fact, both the Scotland and Liverpool journeys Thomas designed were great successes. In 1872, the successor Thomas Cook & Son designed and arranged the first-ever around-the-world journey, which lasted for 233 days and spanned the US, Japan, China and India. That journey was a hallmark event of the UK’s drive to go global. Thereafter, in more than 100 years, Thomas Cook & Son signboards rose across bustling streets in metropolises of the West, getting an important place in global tourism. As a matter of fact, the travel agency stayed afloat until 2019 when it went bust.
该时期，美国酒店业取得了很大突破：第一家公共酒店于 1792 年在纽约开业，第一家现代酒店——特里蒙特酒店（Tremont House）于 1829 年在波士顿开业，第一家商务酒店——布法罗斯塔特勒酒店（ Buffalo Statler）于 1908 年开业。自此，纽约市中心建设了一大批酒店，大量酒店涌入美国和世界其他地区，其中包括 雷迪森（Radisson）、万豪（Marriot） 和希尔顿（ Hilton） 等知名品牌。
As revealed by the latest records on inns - the embryonic form of hotel, Romans built mansions to accommodate those traveling for official business, and then, in view of the development of trade caravans, began to offer inns for rest to trade caravans on the ship routes towards the middle east. Afterwards, as inns sprang up across regions, epoch-making accommodations, including medieval abbey-based hotels accommodating travellers, appeared. Similarly, in the year AD 1200 or so, posts and messenger stations emerged in China and Mongolia.
Building on the embryo of hospitality, hotels increased exponentially in the 15th century. For example, the UK saw over 600 hotels registered in the early 15th century, according to records. Learn more: Development of Hospitality in Various Countries
A dramatic increase of well-managed hotels occurred in the 19th century, in Europe and beyond. In the early 19th century, the well-known Royal National Hotel was built up in London; resorts grew and prospered in French Riviera and Italian Riviera; ryokan sprang up in Japan; Dak bungalows operated by the Indian government provided reliable accommodations to travellers.
In the same period, hospitality made a great breakthrough in the US, as the country saw the first-ever public hotel come into service in New York in 1792, the first-ever modern hotel (Tremont House) begin doing business in Boston in 1829, and the first-ever business hotel (Buffalo Statler) go into operation in 1908. Afterwards, the center of New York City witnessed the completion of many hotels while a multitude of hotels flocked into the US and the rest of the world, including famous brands like Radisson, Marriot and Hilton.
Air tours have grown for over 100 years, from early years of the aircraft industry, to the prime of tourism, to today’s budget airlines.
The Flyer invented by Wright brothers succeeded in its test flight in 1903. In early years of the aircraft industry, airplane renovations were sponsored by wealthy independent explorers. Later, as flying enthusiasts began to explore farther, Imperial Airways began to make attempts on long-haul flights, which were then extended to other well-known airline companies, such as Deutsche Lufthansa, SAS, Sabena, Air France, EgyptAir, Air India and Japan Airlines.
In the early 19th century, outbound travellers had to travel by cruise ship as there was no sophisticated aircraft technology. The world’s first cruise ship usable in tourism, Victoria Louise, appeared in winter 1901. The cruise ship established the Mediterranean cruise ship route that spanned historical remains in the Aegean Sea area of South Europe, West Asia and Egypt. The two decades from 1920 to 1940 represented the prime of cruise tours over the Atlantic. Cruise tours satisfied haves and celebrities, who cared for luxurious services, and immigrants into Europe as well. In particular, in the West, huge and magnificent floating hotels - superliners, were designed for royals and celebrities. For example, the White Star Line released R.M.S. Titanic and R.M.S. Olympic, the then most luxurious passenger ships.
Cruise tours were suspended during the World War II as cruise ships were requisitioned for military use and the aircraft industry grew and prospered, and did not resume until the 1960s.
Tour enthusiasts emerged in an endless stream across different dynasties in China. Today, we are lucky enough to get a glimpse of what tours were like in ancient China through their works recording what they saw and thought. As revealed by these works, Li Bai, a great poet of the Tang Dynasty, bade farewell to his family to “travel around the country by carrying a sword”; Xu Xiake, a famous traveller of the Ming Dynasty, toured mountains to “reach where ancestors had not reached, and discover what ancestors had not discovered”. In a word, generations of travellers in ancient times described what tours were like in their works.
In the ROC era, while tourism was a flash in the pan, it gradually drew near “poetry and the far afield”. For example, China Travel Service (CTS) lifted up the banner of “strengthening tourism with patriotism” in alignment with the philosophy of “keep running even without profit”; Yousheng Tour Group (YTG) operated with the slogan of “snatching leisure through tours”; Xin’an Tour Group (XTG) and Hunan-Guizhou-Yunnan Tour Group drifted from place to place in face of chaos during the Anti-Japanese War. That era made a special footnote of China’s tourist industry, laying a foundation for today’s tourism.
China’s First Travel Agency - CTS
In early years of the ROC era, only overseas travel agencies like Travelex (a British company preceded by Thomas Cook & Son), Travel Unit of American Express and Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO) were engaged in travel service in China. They were committed to the commission sale of train and ship tickets, and to the issuing of traveller's checks, with rude staff and operational chaos. As a result, the emerging tourist market was disorderly.
As a step to break the monopoly, Chen Guangfu, a Chinese banker, established a travel department under Shanghai Commercial & Savings Bank, Ltd. in 1923, marking the birth of the first Chinese travel agency (renamed China Travel Service in 1927). By the outbreak of the Anti-Japanese War, CTS had established 56 branches and offices, including those in Singapore and India. This made it a flagship of China’s early modern tourism. By providing us with plentiful historical information, the stories of Chen Guangfu and CTS enabled us to gain insights into the landscape of tours in China in the early modern times.
A Tour Pal Club - YTG
Yousheng Tour Group (YTG), a non-governmental travel organization founded by young tour enthusiasts, was only open to its members. The group, which comprised “old middle class” represented by owners of shops, restaurants and other small enterprises, and “emerging middle class” represented by executives and technicians of large enterprises, actively advocated tourist activities. Its business spanned 4 decades from its founding in 1915 to its enclosure soon after the founding of the P.R.C., writing a brilliant chapter in China’s early modern tourism.
YTG enjoyed increasing popularity amid its growth from a five-member organization to a large body with over 5,000 members. The group established entertaining clubs committed to interesting tour programs, such as Kunshan Hiking Competition, Mogan Mountain Mountaineering Competition and Nanxiang Horse Riding Competition. It organized leisure travel associations so as to all kinds of long and short trips all year round were initiated. Alongside the tour routes towards Minhang, Sheshan, Chongming and other suburbs of Shanghai, TYG established branches in Huzhou, Hankou, Hangzhou and Zhenjiang, and organized regular (weekly in most times) tours and irregular overseas tours. In so doing, the organization pioneered group tours and standardized this form of tour, writing a vivid chapter of tourism in the ROC era.
Marches amid Flames of War - XTG
National salvation movements swept China after the outbreak of the September 18th Incident. For example, in Huai’an Jiangsu, Wang Dazhi, the principal of Xin’an Primary School, called on children and juveniles to get involved in national salvation. As part of the effort, Wang led pupils to organize Xin’an Tour Group (XTG) to head for Shanghai and Zhenjiang for a 54-day study tour, in 1935. In the course of the tour, the members of the group became highly aware of how important the anti-Japanese outreach campaign was. As such, they further headed southwards to call on people to get involved in national salvation, in various forms. In the process that its members rose from 14 to more than 100, XTG left footprints in 22 provinces across the country. This study tour group set up for national salvation led the then generation of children and juveniles to fulfill the responsibility of defending the country, completing a special, meaningful tour.
From 1939 onwards, the story of XTG spread to the Soviet Union, India, Singapore, the US, Canada and France, exerting an extensive influence at home and abroad.